Tag Archives: aircraft

Vedeneyev – history

Vedeneyev, established by Ivan Vedeneyev, is one of the smaller Design Bureaux of the former Soviet Union and is based at Veronezh.

The Bureau’s staple product has been the M14 family of aircraft engines, which was in fact originally designed by Alexander Ivchenko, at his factory at Zaparozhye in the Ukraine. His first well-known engine was the AI14, itself the basis of the current Vedeneyev M14 engine.

The AI14 was originally produced in the late 1950s as a 260hp and it was from this basis that Vedeneyev developed the M14P as Ivchenko moved into a range of turbo-fans and turbo-prop engines.

Vedeneyev’s first engine was the AI14-RF, producing 300hp, and this in turn led to the M14P, which has become the most numerous variant. This in turn has led to helicopter variants, (the M14V), as well as more powerful versions including the latest M14PF engine producing 400hp, originally designed for the Sukhoi SU-31, but now being used for a variety of upgrades for other aircraft originally equipped with the M14P engine. We funded the development of the 450hp M14R engine, of whichi 6 were made before the collapse of the company.

In addition Vedeneyev have produced a variety of experimental engines – including horizontally opposed and in ‘X’ formation. As it happens the Bureau’s largest product is of precision gearboxes for aerospace use, of which they are the leaders in Russia.

It seems that all activity at Vedeneyev has now stopped.

 

Yak – history

Alexander Yakovlev was born in Moscow in 1906. He won a prize of 200 roubles with his first original design when he was only 18. This was a glider, and his next design, a two-seat biplane with a 60hp engine broke an endurance record and won him a job with an aeroplane manufacturer. He started his own company and by 1935 had designed what is now recognised as the first modern Soviet trainer, the UT-2, which came with an aerobatic variant, the UT-2. The UT-2 cruised at 160 mph on 160hp.
In the late Thirties, Yakovlev won a design contest for fighter aircraft with his I-26, later called the Yak-1. His company went on to manufacture an estimated 30,000 aircraft by the end of the war. The Yak-1 could reach 363 mph. The last of the wartime line, the Yak-9 was considered by many to be the finest fighter of the second world war. The name ‘Yak’ conjures similar emotions for Russians as ‘Spitfire’ does for the British – both nations faced the Nazis under very grim circumstances and had excellent aircraft to do it with.

The first postwar design was the Yak-18 of 1946, a two-seat tandem trainer with a 160hp radial engine, variable pitch propeller and retractable undercarriage superficially similar to the earlier UT-2, but a much more advanced aircraft. This was a huge success, adopted by flying clubs and military alike. Yuri Gagarin learned to fly in one, and the type was manufactured in China under licence as well as in the USSR.

Throughout the Sixties, this Yak-18 was gradually developed into something that in the end looked very like the Yak 50, the Yak-18PS. The process involved lightening the airframe; virtually doubling engine power; dispensing with the second seat; the adoption of a new flat-bottomed wing design; and a tailwheel undercarriage in place of a nosewheel. The aeroplane was a world-beater at the time, but was recognised to be demanding to fly, largely because its antecedents as a military trainer meant that it was overbuilt, and heavy on the controls.

The Yak 50 emerged in the mid-Seventies as a complete re-design, but with a similar configuration to the 18. It had more power; a smaller, lighter airframe; a wing section designed to enhance inverted flight; and a semi-monocoque metal-skinned construction. Alexander Yakovlev’s son, Sergei, carrying on in the footsteps of his illustrious father, was one of the two designers.

The new Yak was a brilliant success. In the 1976 world contest, Yaks took the first two places, and five of the ten top positions. Yaks took all five of the top places in the women’s contest! At this stage the Yak 50 was competing with Zlin 50s and Pitts Specials. The Zlin and the newer, lighter and smaller monoplanes were, however, more agile machines and gradually they edged the Yak 50 out of its top position.

Although the Yak 50 is now outclassed at World level competitions, it is one of the most charismatic aircraft of all time, being a delight to fly; having the looks, performance and sound of a Second World War fighter, yet with affordable operating costs.

Meanwhile, Yak had developed a new aerobatic trainer, the Yak 52. This was barely seen in the West until the collapse of Communism because it was designed for training rather than competitions at the international level. The aeroplane was produced in large quantities, and was used by both the military and by the many flying clubs sponsored by a government that, despite its failings in other areas, at least smiled on sports aerobatics. So many 52s have been exported that there are now more Yak 52 aircraft in the West than in Russia. The aeroplane’s lineage as a military trainer is evident. It is widely admired for its predictability and lack of vices in flight and its rugged serviceability. It has the charm and style of a warbird, and you can take a friend along – and it is a fraction of the price of anything remotely comparable. Its nosewheel configuration has endeared it to pilots trained in Pipers and Cessnas.

The Yak 18T, another post-war design, is a four seat retractable aeroplane designed for cross-country work. It has excellent short field performance and is stressed for aerobatics. Modified and updated for Western use, the 18T is an excellent all-round performer, comfortable and spacious inside, with good endurance, load-carrying and cruise performance.

In 1982, a new design emerged from Yak, the 55, designed expressly for unlimited level aerobatics. Various improvements were made to it over the next few years, resulting in a machine that was easy to fly and an impressive performer, although marginally outclassed by the new Sukhoi Su26. The 55 remains highly competitive at Advanced, where, alongside the Zlin 50, it looks set for a long-term future.

The very latest Yak, the SP-55M, has just become available. From early reports, it seems set to challenge the Sukhoi designs for top-level aerobatics.

Sukhoi Design Bureau – History

Sukhoi Design Bureau is generally accepted as being the leading Fighter Design Bureau of the former Soviet Union, although ironically, probably less well known in the West than MiG, principally because the Soviet Union kept the Sukhoi aircraft for their own use, only selling Migs to the Warsaw Pact and other ‘friendly’ nations.

The range of aircraft has been most impressive and included an all-titanium Mach-3 bomber of extraordinary sophistication, which was actually cancelled by Kruschiev in the mistaken belief (although shared with a variety of contemporary Western politicians) that there was no future in manned aircraft!

Su-27 Fighter Aircraft

The involvement of Sukhoi in aerobatic aircraft came through the brilliant designer, Slava Kondratiev, who was one of the leading lights at Yakovlev, and who indeed designed the then state of the art aircraft – the Yak-55 and –55M. He could see that the future lay in composite aircraft, but Yakovlev refused to accept that a proper aircraft could be made out of ‘plastics’ and Sukhoi, eager to show off their skills, gave Kondratiev a free hand to design a composite aerobatic aircraft, which resulted in the world-beating SU-26, and its production version the SU-26M.

The design and construction of this aircraft is in fact done by Advance Sukhoi Technologies, in fact a privately owned company, albeit with largely the same management as the (still today) majority state-owned Sukhoi Design Bureau. The aircraft are largely manufactured within the Sukhoi Design Bureau at Policarpov Street in central Moscow, where the back of the factory opens on to the old Central Moscow Airfield, which is now disused, but does give AST the ability to wheel aircraft out of the factory for immediate test flights.

Always his own man, Kondratiev began to find Sukhoi too constraining, so he left, having laid down the basis for the almost totally composite SU-29 two seater and SU-31 single seater, to set up his own design bureau, Technoavia. In the meantime Boris Rakitin took over as chief designer of AST and brought these two products to fruition. The organisation produced some 190 aircraft which have been solid literally throughout the world, as well has having been the most successful competition aircraft of all time.

Sadly, it would seem that production of these exceptional aircraft has stopped and is unlikely to restart, although all jigs, tooling etc still exist.